By David S. Ginley, John D. Perkins (auth.), David S. Ginley (eds.)
Transparent carrying out fabrics are key parts in a wide selection of present applied sciences together with flat panel screens, photovoltaics, natural, low-e home windows and electrochromics. the wishes for brand new and more suitable fabrics is urgent, as the present fabrics wouldn't have the functionality degrees to satisfy the ever- expanding call for, and since a few of the present fabrics used will not be manageable sooner or later. additionally, the sphere of obvious conductors has undergone dramatic alterations within the final 5-7 years with new fabrics being pointed out, new purposes and new humans within the box. “Handbook of obvious Conductors” offers obvious conductors in a ancient standpoint, presents present purposes in addition to insights into the way forward for the units. it's a complete reference, and represents the most up-tp-date source at the subject.
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Additional info for Handbook of Transparent Conductors
The NREL group have applied these ideas to study the limits to doping of the tetrahedral semiconductors such as III-Vs, ZnO and the chalcopyrites [66–68]. The bands of the various semiconductors are aligned with each other using the calculated or observed band offsets, and the pinning energies are found to lie at a roughly constant energy across the series, Fig. 16. Zunger  prefers to reference band offsets to the vacuum level Evac. e. its electron affinity is too small. AlN would be an example.
Thus acceptors would not ionise. The high hole effective mass arises in SiO2 or SnO2 because the valence band maximum states are nonbonding pp states, directed perpendicular to the bonding direction. Thus, they have a small dispersion. ZnO is one case without nonbonding p states, but it still has a rather large hole mass. Kawazoe et al.  noted that we should try to increase the dispersion of the valence band top states, and the way to do this is to hybridise (mix) them with d states of a cation at a similar energy.
S. K. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. V. V. A. Firsov, Science 306, 666–669 (2004). 72. “Electronic and structural properties of graphene-based transparent and conductive thin film electrodes”, A. L. Feng, X. J. Zhi, K. Mullen, N. P. Rabe, Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing 94, 1–4 (2009). 73. “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells”, X. J. Zhi and K. Mullen, Nano Letters 8, 323–327 (2008). 74. “High-mobility amorphous In2O3-10 wt %ZnO thin film transistors”, B.