By Evelyne Huber Stephens, John D. Stephens
The Description for this publication, Democratic Socialism in Jamaica: The Political circulate and Social Transformation in based Capitalism, may be forthcoming.
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Additional resources for Democratic Socialism in Jamaica: The Political Movement and Social Transformation in Dependent Capitalism
This was in large part a direct effect of government policy. The incentive legislation, such as accelerated depreciation and tax holidays for new investment, tended to make capital cheaper relative to labor and despite the IDC goal of encouraging labor intensive investments little was actually done in this regard. The final economic activity which made a significant contribution to foreign exchange earnings and employment is difficult to describe and analyze accurately because little reliable data exist on it.
15 This purge, in turn, signified the beginning of increasing convergence of the two major parties, in ideological as well as in sociological terms. The PNP had not only grown in importance as an organizational and electoral force, but also as a highly articulate parliamentary force. In contrast to the JLP majority, the PNP minority consistently put forward policy statements and plans for various economic and social programs. Up to 1952, the PNP primarily emphasized state initiatives to promote economic development, including the nationalization of utilities, transport, and communications, and the establishment of public corporations for agricultural and industrial development.
The planters tried to coerce the freed slaves to continue to work on the plantations, but many of them refused, retreating to the hills or to former estate lands to settle on small plots. Many of these plots were too small to sustain a living and people combined independent farming with wage labor. Thus, the black slave mass of the Jamaican society was transformed into three new social classes: a rural proletariat, a peasantry and a third group which had a foot in both classes. The decline of sugar, which had begun well before the end of slavery because of the comparatively low productivity of Jamaican estates, and the rise of the banana industry, which accounted for fully half of exports by 1930, aided this social diversification since bananas are amenable to cultivation on small plots as well as on large estates.