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Extra info for Current issues in applied memory research
First consider data at the 10-minute delay. 3 Mean proportion recalled in Karpicke and Roediger’s (2007) experiment on schedules of testing. Expanding retrieval in the initial phase produced better recall than the equal interval schedule on the 10-minute delayed test, and both of these schedules were better than the massed retrieval schedule. However, after a 2-day delay, recall was best in the equal interval condition relative to the expanding condition, although both conditions still produced better performance than in the massed condition.
68% of respondents chose “To ﬁgure out how well I have learned the information I’m studying,” while only 18% selected “I learn more that way than through rereading,” suggesting that relatively few students view testing as a learning event (see too Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger, 2009). To gain insight into subjects’ monitoring abilities, researchers ask them to make judgments of learning (JOLs). Normally done during study, students predict their ability to remember the to-be-learned information at a later point in time (usually on a scale of 0–100%), and then these predictions are compared to their actual performance.
In other words, learning from the test is handicapped when accuracy is low on the initial test (whereas this problem does not occur with rereading, where there is re-exposure to 100% of the target information). For the testing eﬀect to manifest itself fully, feedback must be provided if initial test performance is low. , attempting to recall an answer but failing to) can enhance future encoding of the target information (Kornell, Hays, & Bjork, 2009; Richland, Kornell & Kao, 2009) emphasizes further the utility of providing feedback when initial test performance is poor.