Continental Red Beds by P. Turner

By P. Turner

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By P. Turner

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Transform f a u l t s Transform o r s t r i k e - s l i p f a u l t s bound p l a t e s between which movement i s p r i m a r i l y 17 l a t e r a l and l i t h o s p h e r e i s conserved b e i n g n e i t h e r c r e a t e d o r d e s t r o y e d . Primary t r a n s f o r m f a u l t s ( G i l l i l a n d and Meyer, 1976) o c c u r a l o n g fundamental b r e a k s in t h e l i t h o s p h e r e and may have had a l o n g h i s t o r y o f t e c t o n i c a c t i v i t y l i k e t h e San Andreas f a u l t system which is o v e r 1,500km l o n g , 500km wide, and h a s been a c t i v e s i n c e t h e Oligocene.

The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e S c o t t i s h Caledonides c a n a l s o be compared c l o s e l y w i t h present-day n o r t h e a s t e r n Burma ( M i t c h e l l and McKerrow, 1975). The molasse f a c i e s o f t h e Caledonian orogen i s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e Old Red Sandstone. I t i s a major c o n t i n e n t a l r e d b e d sequence r a n g i n g i n age from l a t e S i l u r i a n t o Devonian which was d e p o s i t e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t l a t e - o r o g e n i c s e d i m e n t a r y b a s i n s , some w i t h a marine c o n n e c t i o n ( e x t e r n a l b a s i n s ) and some w i t h no marine connections and i n t e r n a l d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n s ( i n t e r n a l b a s i n s ) .

Deposition: There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e m a j o r p e r i o d s of molasse Palaeocene/Eocene and Miocene/Pliocene c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e main p e r i o d s of l i t h o s p h e r i c p l a t e motion i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a r e a s (Van Houten, 1969). 29. The Molasse n o r t h of t h e C e n t r a l and E a s t e r n Alps accumulated i n a c r a t o n i c b a s i n a b o u t 700km long and 50-14Okm wide which l a y between l a r g e Hercynian b l o c k s . Other i m p o r t a n t m o l a s s e b a s i n s a r e t h e A q u i t a i n e B a s i n l y i n g between t h e Massif C e n t r a l and t h e P y r e n e e s , and t h e Ebro B a s i n i m e d i a t e l y s o u t h of t h e P y r e n e e s ( F i g .

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