By Ivan Marsic
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Extra info for Computer Networks: Performance and Quality of Service
This is known as the expected number of transmissions. Our simplifying assumption is that error occurrences in successively transmitted packets are independent events3. A successful transmission in one round requires error-free transmission of two packets: forward data and feedback acknowledgement. 6) The probability of a failed transmission in one round is pfail = 1 − psucc. Then, the number of attempts K needed to transmit successfully a packet is a geometric random variable. 7) where k = 1, 2, 3, … .
At the sender side, the packet may be received from an upper-layer protocol or from the application. At the receiver side, the packet is received from the network or from a lower-layer protocol. Examples of processing include conversion of a stream of bytes to frames or packets (known as framing or packetization), data compression, encryption, relaying at routers, etc. Processing delays usually can be ignored when looking from an end-host’s viewpoint. 4. Another important parameter is the round-trip time (or RTT), which is the time a bit of information takes from departing until arriving back at the sender if it is immediately bounced back at the receiver.
368 occurs at G = 1. This is reasonable, because if G < 1, too many idle slots are generated, and if G > 1, too many collisions are generated. At G = 1, the packet departure rate is one packet per packet time (or, per Ivan Marsic • 42 Rutgers University Table 1-1: Characteristics of three basic CSMA protocols when the channel is sensed idle or busy. If a transmission was unsuccessful, all three protocols perform backoff and repeat. CSMA Protocol Nonpersistent 1-persistent p-persistent Sender’s listening-and-transmission rules If medium is idle, transmit.