By Séamus Mac Mathúna and Ailbhe Ó Corráin
This dictionary comprises over 40,000 references and 60,000 translations. It good points assurance of up to date Irish and English, certain therapy of easy vocabulary goods, speedy reference grammar tables and a advisor to Irish pronunciation. vitamins on time, date and names also are supplied.
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Palan jukumpil pangkul yarangku palka-n the woman-abs the man-erg hit -nfut 'The man hit the woman' Dy,D:59 Payiyara (pangkun jukumpiru) palga-nga -nyu the man-abs (the woman-obl) hit -NGAY-nfut 'The man hit (the woman)' Dy,D:70 As one can see from (40a, b), the morpheme -rriy (—marriy, —yirriy) can function in a way identical to -ngay. It has, however, also another function: the example in (40c) not only has the interpretation 'the man hears (something)' , but also 'the man hears himself', meaning 'the man thinks'.
1. Unaccusativity and its Consequences On the basis of the preceding section the reader may deduce that we assume that ergative patterns always arise as a 'solution' to the Case problem posed by unaccusativity. In languages where unaccusativity is restricted to certain constructions, only these constructions are bound to manifest ergativity. In languages with overall unaccusativity, Unaccusativity and its Consequences 23 on the other hand, ergativity will be a characteristic of the whole language.
4. Syntactic Ergativity and Structural Case Above, we have discussed several constructions in which lack of Case for the direct object position gave rise to an ergative pattern: we have discussed the hypothesis that the partially ergative system of Indo-Iranian arose as a consequence of the fact that perfect participles were not Case-assigners; we have discussed ergative phenomena in accusative languages that followed from the absence of accusative Case; furthermore we have mentioned that some evidence exists that passive structures - in which again there is no Case for direct objects - can become so general in a given language that this language actually becomes ergative.