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Additional resources for Cognitive Systems. Information Processing Meets Brain Science
Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hebb, D. (1949) The Organization of Behavior. New York: Wiley. , Krogh, A. G. (1991) Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation. Reading, MA: Addison–Wesley. N. and LeVay, S. (1977) Plasticity of ocular dominance columns in monkey striate cortex. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B, 278: 377–409. H. N. (1977) Ferrier lecture. Functional architecture of the macaque monkey visual cortex. Proc. R. Soc. London B, 198: 1–59. , Grinvald, A. and Bonhöffer, T. (1997) Spatial relationships among three columnar systems in cat area 17.
Such ordered anatomical layouts of connections provide the substrates for the ordering observed in electrophysiological experiments. Many neural maps are effectively projections of one two-dimensional surface onto another. For example, axons from each small cluster of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina project, via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, onto a small area of visual cortex, with the result that a map of the retina is spread over the surface of its target structure (Fig.
In addition, according to recent optical recording experiments in cat, the orientation domains tend to intersect at right angles the borders of ocular dominance stripes. In the classic model of Hubel et al. (1977), developed for the cat, isoorientation columns run in straight lines at right-angles to the inter digitating ocular dominance columns. 3 The Effect of Neural Activity It is well established that lack of normal visual experience early in postnatal life prevents the normal development of the visual cortex.