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During this ebook, the authors define specific layout technique for speedy frequency hopping synthesizers for RF and instant communications purposes. there's nice emphasis on fractional-N delta-sigma dependent section locked loops from standards, procedure research and structure making plans to circuit layout and silicon implementation. The built suggestions within the ebook will help in designing very low noise, excessive velocity fractional-N frequency synthesizers.
Read Online or Download CMOS Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for Wireless Multi-Gigahertz Applications: Design Methodology, Analysis, and Implementation (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing) PDF
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Extra resources for CMOS Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for Wireless Multi-Gigahertz Applications: Design Methodology, Analysis, and Implementation (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
The simulation in chapter 4 will help the designer make the right implementation optimizations for such a synthesizer. 41 Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizers Fractional-N PLL Phase Noise -60 VCO Noise Reference Noise R2 LF noise R3 LF noise PFD/CP Sampling Noise Delta-Sigma Noise Total Synth. Noise -70 -80 Phase Noise (dBc/Hz) -90 -100 -110 -120 -130 -140 -150 -160 -170 2 10 3 4 10 10 5 10 Offset Frequency (Hz) 6 10 7 10 8 10 Figure 3-19. 6 Most wireless standards specify the noise in terms of rms phase error unit rather than phase noise at spot frequencies .
Thermal and shot noise sources have white noise spectra. Examples include resistors (including MOSFET channel resistance)  (this is called white noise 1/f 0 noise, for consistency with the remaining spectra). x 1/f noise is characterized by a noise power spectrum that decreases at a rate of 3 dB per octave, or 10 dB per decade. Flicker noise sources have 1/f noise spectra. Examples include MOSFET channel (drain) current and polysilicon resistors . x 1/f 2 noise is characterized by a noise power spectrum that decreases at a rate of 6 dB per octave, or 20 dB per decade.
The measured open-loop single-sided power spectral density (PSD) for the employed reference oscillator Lref ( f ) is í145 dBc/Hz. 1) u white _ noise(10Lref ( fO ) /10 u fO2 ) Tref The noise term has two parts as shown in the equation above. The first term is taken at each reference sample time. It should be noted that the noise here is frequency noise. f O is the offset frequency where the measured PSD Lref ( f O ) is read. The normal distribution and the white noise functions are Verilog-A™ built-in proprietary functions.