By Jiann-Shiun Yuan
The topic of this booklet is CMOS RF circuit layout for reliability. The machine reliability and approach version matters on RF transmitter and receiver circuits should be specific curiosity to the readers within the box of semiconductor units and circuits. This proposed e-book is exclusive to discover regular reliability concerns within the gadget and expertise point after which to ascertain their impression on RF instant transceiver circuit functionality. Analytical equations, experimental facts, equipment and circuit simulation effects should be given for transparent rationalization. the most profit the reader derive from this publication could be transparent realizing on how machine reliability matters impacts the RF circuit functionality subjected to operation getting older and procedure variations.
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Additional info for CMOS RF Circuit Design for Reliability and Variability
2 mW 7 GHz CMOS quadrature VCO using current-reuse and cross-coupled transformer-feedback technology. IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon Lett 18:698–700 3. Chuang YH, Lee S-H, Yen R-H, Jang S-L, Lee J-F, Juang M-H (2006) A wide locking range and low voltage CMOS direct injection-locked frequency divider. IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon Lett 16:299–301 4. Lee S-H, Jang S-L, Chuang Y-H, Chao J-J, Lee J-F, Jung M-H (2007) A low power injection locked LC-tank oscillator with current reused topology. IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon Lett 17:220–222 5.
Note that typical LC oscillator design  does not require the use of resistors. In our design, however, two resistors are added to improve magnitude asymmetry of differential outputs, which is resulted from different transconductances of two cross-connected transistors or different equivalent impedances at two drain terminals, at the expense of minor increase of power dissipation due to resistors. Fig. 10 Schematic of current reused VCO with balanced resistors and buffers (© Elsevier) L VDD C Vout1 VDD Vtune R C R M1 VDD M2 Vout2 42 5 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator Reliability The current reused VCO was laid out using Cadence Virtuoso software, followed by successful Calibre DRC for design rule checking and LVS for layout versus schematic veriﬁcation.
After RF oscillation stress at VDD = 1. 5 V, the RF parameters were measured at 1 and 5 h time points. The measurement was done at the normalized circuit operation condition of VDD = 1 V. 6 shows the measured VCO core current versus tuning voltage. 9 mA under 1 V supply voltage at the fresh circuit condition. After RF stress, the VCO current decreases. 6 mA after 5 h of RF stress, at 38 5 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator Reliability Fig. 0 Tuning Voltage (V) the tuning voltage of 0 V. The decrease in VCO current is attributed to the reduction of drain current due to hot electron effect and off-state avalanche.