By Morris Freedman, Larry Leach, Edith Kaplan, Gordon Winocur, Kenneth Shulman, Dean C. Delis
Written by means of a multidisciplinary staff of specialists in neurobehavior, this concise, well-illustrated publication presents normative info on clock drawing from a while 20 to ninety years. a pragmatic advisor to the quantitative evaluation of clock drawing, it additionally takes a process-oriented method of qualitative impairment. The authors talk about clock drawing as a neuropsychological try device and the reason for choosing particular time settings, in addition to the foundation for utilizing assorted clock stipulations. The e-book comprises various examples of clocks drawn by means of sufferers with cognitive impairment as a result of dementia, metabolic encephalopathy, stressful mind damage, disconnection syndrome and focal mind lesions. perception into alterations in clock drawing skill that can signify the earliest markers of cognitive decline in dementia also are provided. This quantity should be of curiosity to clinicians and researchers in neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, geriatric medication, language remedy, and occupational remedy.
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Extra info for Clock Drawing: A Neuropsychological Analysis
Subjects were presented with a blank sheet of Table 3-1. " After completing the freedrawn clock, all subjects were asked to complete the pre-drawn clock. 2. Pre-drawn clock condition. " Next, the three examiner clocks were administered. 3. Examiner clock conditions. For each of the three conditions, subjects were presented with a sheet of 8'/2-by-ll-inch white paper with a pre-drawn clock face with the numbers already on it. The diameter of the clock face was 11 cm. The height of the numbers was 6 mm ('A in).
A Newman-Keuls test revealed that the mean total scores for 30 Clock Drawing Figure 2-14 Examples of superfluous marks or hands. (A) and (B) "spokes of a wheel" configuration; 73-year-old male. 05). Table 2-4 presents the cumulative frequencies and percentile rankings for the total clock scores for each age group. The effect of age on the total clock scores is evident in the range of scores for age groups; the greatest ranges occur at the 70—79 and 80+ age groups. Reliability among three raters was found to be very high using our "critical item" scoring system.
To the minute number contradicts our earlier statement that it is more difficult to place the minute hand correctly. In all clocks, however, subjects were required to place the minute hand/mark at a specific numeral, because all times used fell at the discrete 5-minute intervals. The hour hand, however, must be displaced slightly off the target number for all times requested, except for 3 o'clock, to be accurately represented. Therefore, the greater variability in hour hand/mark placement likely reflects subjects' attempts to represent accurately this displacement rather than an error in indicating the hour.