By B. A., M. A., Ph.D. James L. Wilson (auth.)
Since 1950 geologists have realized extra concerning the beginning and lithification of carbonate sediments than in all of the earlier years of the heritage of technology. this is often precise in all of the varied fields of carbonate geology: the examine of modern environments, marine zoology and botany, natural geochemistry, hint point and isotope geochemistry, mineralogy, microfacies of depositional environments, and trace-fossil and sedimentary constitution research. A synthesis of this new wisdom is simply commencing to be formulated. the aim of this quantity is to introduce the complicated pupil and petroleum explorationist largely to 1 vital element of this examine: to a few of the rules of carbonate geology that can serve to interpret the depositional environments of historic strata and to higher outline their sequences and styles. bankruptcy I is a quick evaluation of ideas of carbonate sedimentation. (For a whole dialogue of the mineralogy, geochemistry, and diagenesis of carbonates besides a overview of Holocene sediments, one might check with Bathurst's (1971) and Milliman's (1974) texts.) bankruptcy II stories stratigraphic and paleotectonic ideas and discusses a common version for carbonate deposition. bankruptcy III deals an summary of carbonate petrography, focusing on lithologic descrip tion for the needs of environmental interpretation. For an additional evaluate of this topic and perfect photomicrographs, Horowitz and Potter (1971) and Majewske (1969) can be used.
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Additional resources for Carbonate Facies in Geologic History
Seismology: Seismic profiles probably offer the clearest demonstration of subsurface topographic relief and the ability to distinguish such from faulting and structural downwarping, Guzman (1967), Fig. 11-23) offers an illustration of this for the Golden Lane in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Stratigraphic Sequences in Carbonates of Epeiric Seas on Shelves and in Shallow Basins Sequences of both uniform and cyclically alternating, geographically widespread thin rock units are common behind shelf margins. Such sequences include open and restricted marine and evaporite environments of the carbonate facies spectrum (belts 7- 9).
Cyclic and Reciprocal Sedimentation Alternation of basin and shelf sedimentation results when the buildups of shelf margin slopes around a basin are formed during periodic sea level fluctuations, particularly when the climate and lack of hinterland relief encourage the carbonate producing process to operate efficiently. Fig. 11-20 shows that during high stands of sea level the shelf margin is protected from clastic influx, which is caught many miles away near the shoreline. In the clear shelf water, carbonate production and sediment stabilization by organic and inorganic processes are particularly efficient, resulting in rapid accumulation on the shelf and its margin and almost none in the basin.
If a deep enough lagoon exists behind the barrier belts in a constantly temperate or tropical climate, it may have 28 The Stratigraphy of Carbonate Deposits good circulation and no restricted marine carbonates or evaporites may occur. The numerous examples organized in the following Chapters demonstrate a range of variations. The different factors controlling these variations are outlined in the last Chapter. Yet it is remarkable how uniform the facies patterns may be in carbonate strata. The Permian Reef Complex stands as an almost ideal model of the complete gamut offacies (Dunham, 1972; Meissner, 1972), and the Cretaceous pattern described by Coogan (1972) is almost complete.