Biosurfactants: From Genes to Applications (Microbiology by Gloria Soberón-Chávez

By Gloria Soberón-Chávez

Biosurfactants, tensio-active compounds produced by means of dwelling cells, at the moment are gaining expanding curiosity because of their strength functions in lots of diversified commercial parts during which thus far virtually solely artificial surfactants were used. Their specified buildings and features are only turning out to be liked. additionally, biosurfactants are thought of to be environmentally “friendly,” fairly non-toxic and biodegradable. This Microbiology Monographs quantity bargains with the newest advances within the box of microbial biosurfactants, reminiscent of rhamnolipids, serrawettins, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, sophorolipids, surfactin and different lipopeptides. every one bankruptcy stories the features of someone biosurfactant together with the physicochemical houses, the chemical constructions, the position within the body structure of the manufacturing microbes, the biosynthetic pathways, the genetic law, and the aptitude biotechnological purposes.

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By Gloria Soberón-Chávez

Biosurfactants, tensio-active compounds produced by means of dwelling cells, at the moment are gaining expanding curiosity because of their strength functions in lots of diversified commercial parts during which thus far virtually solely artificial surfactants were used. Their specified buildings and features are only turning out to be liked. additionally, biosurfactants are thought of to be environmentally “friendly,” fairly non-toxic and biodegradable. This Microbiology Monographs quantity bargains with the newest advances within the box of microbial biosurfactants, reminiscent of rhamnolipids, serrawettins, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, sophorolipids, surfactin and different lipopeptides. every one bankruptcy stories the features of someone biosurfactant together with the physicochemical houses, the chemical constructions, the position within the body structure of the manufacturing microbes, the biosynthetic pathways, the genetic law, and the aptitude biotechnological purposes.

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Extra resources for Biosurfactants: From Genes to Applications (Microbiology Monographs, Vol. 20)

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Thailandensis (Dubeau et al. 2009) primarily produce one RL species, Rha-RhaC14-C14. However, a number of other congeners were recently detected in cultures of the two latter (Dubeau et al. 2009), including mono-RLs, mostly Rha-C14-C14. These authors indeed confirmed the very high ratio of di-RLs vs. mono-RLs produced by these species, compared to what is observed in P. aeruginosa cultures (Dubeau et al. 2009). This is probably due to the fact that, as stated above, the Burkholderia rhlC genes encoding the second rhamnosyltransferase are part of the same operon than the rhlA and RhlB homologs, in contrast to the situation in P.

1966) purified RhlB, the enzyme catalyzing the second reaction, and partially purified RhlC, the enzyme catalyzing the third reaction. They showed that they both accepted L-rhamnosyl-b-hydroxydecanoyl-b-hydroxydecanoate, b-hydroxydecanoyl-b-hydroxydecanoate, and b-Hydroxydecanoyl-CoA as glycosyl acceptors, while free b-hydroxydecanoate was not a substrate (Burger et al. 1966). Ochsner et al. (1994a) later described RhlB, based on the analysis of the amino acid sequences deduced from rhlB as a protein with at least two putative membrane-spanning domains, which would allow anchoring in the inner membrane.

Besides RhlR/C4-HSL quorum sensing, two additional cell-to-cell communication systems participate in the quorum sensing circuitry of P. aeruginosa and influence rhlAB transcription (Fig. 3). First, the rhl system is positively upregulated by another LuxR-type regulator called LasR, which is activated by its cognate AHL N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-HSL (3-oxo-C12-HSL) (Latifi et al. 1996; Pearson et al. 1997). Second, besides the LuxR/AHL-type circuits, P. aeruginosa carries a distinct quorum sensing system composed of the transcriptional regulator MvfR (PqsR), which directs the biosynthesis of HAQs (De´ziel et al.

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