Artificial satellites and how to observe them by Richard Schmude Jr.

By Richard Schmude Jr.

Эта книга описывает различные искусственные спутники, которые можно наблюдать даже не вооружённым взглядом, от Международной Космической Станции и до всевозможных спутников-шпионов разных стран. Ричард Шмуде подробно их описывает, как они могут наблюдаться любителями, как их распознать, и как предсказать их орбиты, как их сфотографировать и какие исследования доступны любителям при таких наблюдениях.

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By Richard Schmude Jr.

Эта книга описывает различные искусственные спутники, которые можно наблюдать даже не вооружённым взглядом, от Международной Космической Станции и до всевозможных спутников-шпионов разных стран. Ричард Шмуде подробно их описывает, как они могут наблюдаться любителями, как их распознать, и как предсказать их орбиты, как их сфотографировать и какие исследования доступны любителям при таких наблюдениях.

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A collision with a small object may destroy instruments. According to a NASA website, one of the Themis satellites was struck by an object in October 2010. Intense radiation from our Sun may cause a computer to shut 25 Satellite Basics Fig. 33. The Sun may cause a planetary atmosphere to expand, which in turn may be disastrous for a satellite. ). down. For example, McDowell (2009g) reports that the Gravity Probe B satellite temporarily shut down because of an intense burst of solar wind. If the thrusters fail, communication would become difficult.

In the rendezvous mission, a spacecraft approaches (or gains) on its target until it is close enough to make measurements. ). 34 A lander mission is one where a spacecraft studies the dense portions of a body’s atmosphere and/or lands on its surface. Some spacecraft crash land. Others have a soft landing. A rover is a special kind of lander. It moves along the surface. 3. Since the 1990s, scientists have intentionally crashed objects into the Moon. In a number of cases, their goal was to detect water in the debris kicked up by the crashes.

2005) Objective Instrument Obtain a three dimensional (3-D) image of the lunar surface Survey the thickness of the lunar regolith Determine the distribution of useful elements Explore the environment between the Moon and Earth Stereo camera, laser altimeter Microwave radiometer Spectrometer imager, X-ray and gamma ray spectrometers Particle detector, X-ray and gamma ray spectrometers 43 Scientific Satellite Spacecraft Fig. 6. Frequency ranges for different instruments on Chang’e-1. ). Stereo Camera The stereo camera resolved lunar features as small as 120 m across.

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