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Extra info for Applied Surgical Physiology Vivas
From line A to C there is a progressive increase in the PaCO2. 52 ᭢ DRAMROO APPLIED SURGICAL PHYSIOLOGY VIVAS C Ventilation (L/min) 10. Draw a similar graph of how the ventilatory response varies with the PaCO2 at different PaO2s. 70 PaO2 100 CONTROL OF VENTIL ATION 5 40 PaCO2 (mmHg) Effect of O2 and CO2 ventilatory response. The normal ventilatory response to CO2 is enhanced by hypoxia; both the threshold (extrapolated X-intercept) and the sensitivity (slope of response) are affected. From Berne RM, Levy MN.
This is the ventricular wall tension that has to be generated in order to eject blood out of the ventricle. It is analogous to the arterial pressure. An increase in the CO causes a rise in the arterial pressure (afterload). This in turn, has a negative feedback effect on the output. Since more energy is consumed generating a high enough pressure to overcome a high arterial pressure, the resulting stroke volume is less – reducing the output in subsequent beats. CARDIAC OUTPUT 7. What happens to the Frank-Starling curve of the heart when the myocardial contractility is increased?
In the normal state, the outputs of both ventricles are essentially equal – both being 5–6 LminϪ1. 5. What determines the preload? This is determined by the venous return to the heart. The amount of venous return itself depends on the difference between the systemic filling pressure (driving blood back to the heart) and the central venous pressure (CVP) (working against the venous return). DRAMROO ᭢ 37 APPLIED SURGICAL PHYSIOLOGY VIVAS C 6. Define the afterload. What is this analogous to, in simple terms?