By Drlica K., Perlin D.
As pathogenic micro organism evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our skill to manage and deal with infectious illnesses. Antibiotic Resistance completely illuminates this significant factor for healthcare pros, researchers, scholars, and policymakers. major investigators clarify what resistance is, the way it emerges, which human actions give a contribution, and the way to reinforce our defenses.
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Extra resources for Antibiotic resistance. Understanding and responding to an emerging crisis
So far, few successful nucleic acid antibiotics have been developed, largely due to delivery problems. In the next chapter, we describe the major antibiotic classes to provide a context for considering resistance. com Chapter 3 A Survey of Antibiotics Summary: Chemicals are selected to be antibiotics based on their capability to cure disease with minimal side effects. ) Chemicals that kill pathogens were first developed by Paul Ehrlich early in the Twentieth Century. Subsequently, Alexander Fleming discovered that secretions from a mold killed bacteria, an observation that led to the discovery of penicillin.
Tuberculosis, rifampicin is highly lethal and serves as a major, first-line antituberculosis agent. Rifampicin is also active with S. aureus, and it is being drawn into clinical practice for MRSA. However, resistant mutants arise so often with S. aureus that rifampicin is rarely used in the absence of a second antibiotic. Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis include the penicillins and their more recent derivatives, collectively called β-lactams. Treatment of growing bacteria with penicillin causes the cells to break apart: A turbid (cloudy) culture of susceptible bacteria will become clear.
For most treatment situations, the infecting pathogen is not identified. Treating with a broad-spectum agent allows effective treatment to begin immediately and often without the added expense of diagnostic tests. However, with diseases that require long treatment periods, such as tuberculosis, specialized agents that cause less damage to our normal bacterial flora are preferred. These narrow-spectrum agents are also less likely to select resistant mutants of other pathogens that may co-infect patients.