Ancient Rome by Hal Marcovitz

By Hal Marcovitz

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By Hal Marcovitz

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To avoid civil war, the Senate ordered Caesar to disband his army. Caesar refused. He knew this would be his moment of triumph. Instead, Caesar led his army in an attack on Rome. ”34 Caesar used a gambling term because he was sure his ploy for power represented a high-stakes gamble. As it turned out, Caesar’s daring grab for power was not much of a gamble—his army encountered little resistance. He marched into the city and declared himself dictator, finding a once-defiant Senate now willing to bow down to his authoritarian power.

A day after the battle of Alesia, Vercingetorix surrendered. He was taken back to Rome in chains and imprisoned for the next six years and later murdered. ” Rome’s many wars had widened the boundaries of the powerful city-state beyond the Italian Peninsula. At the height of its power, Rome controlled vast territories across three continents—Europe, Asia, and Africa. But there is no question that Rome had also overextended itself—eventually, the Roman legions would not be used to conquer new territories but to put down rebellions and control the many unruly peoples who bristled under the authority of their Roman masters.

If the Colosseum reflected Rome’s love for entertainment and blood sports, the Forum represented the commercial and governmental heart of the empire. The Forum could be found in the valley between the Capitoline and Palatine Hills. Eventually, dozens of buildings, monuments, and statues were erected in the Forum. Among them were the Arch of Titus, a monument erected to celebrate Titus’s conquest of Judea; the circular Temple of Romulus, a monument to Rome’s first ruler; and the Temple of Vesta, a shrine regarded as one of the most sacred sites in the city.

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