By Flossie Wong-Staal, Robert C. Gallo
This reference describes the newest advances within the improvement and layout of an HIV preventive vaccine-detailing the pathogenesis and genetic variability of HIV an infection for the development of molecular and healing ideas to lessen the development and transmission of AIDS. With contributions via universally famous experts within the box, AIDS Vaccine learn discusses
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Additional resources for AIDS Vaccine Research
Cytokines that are characteristic of TH1-type responses, such as IL-2, IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, upregulate CCR5 expression (74,344–346), whereas TH2-associated cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10, tend to upregulate CXCR4 expression and downregulate CCR5 expression (317,344,346–349). Stimulation of CD4ϩ T cells through CD3 and CD28 protects cells from HIV infection and potently downregulates HIV replication in infected cells (350–352); this effect appears to be due in part to downregulation of CCR5 (353).
Cytokines that enhance viral replication (ϩ), inhibit viral replication (Ϫ), and enhance or inhibit viral replication depending upon the conditions (ϩ/Ϫ) are shown. that have been reported to upregulate HIV replication in vitro include IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, TNF-α, TNF-β, and the colony-stimulating factors (CSF) macrophage (M)–CSF and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)–CSF (reviewed in Ref. 283; see also Refs. 308–313). IFN-α, IFN-β, and IL-16 (275,314,315) are primarily suppressors of HIV production, whereas other cytokines, such as IL-4 (316,317), IL-10 (318–321), IL-13 (316), IFN-γ (322,323), Immunopathogenesis of HIV Infection 29 and TGF-β (324,325), reduce or enhance viral replication depending on the infected cell type and the culture conditions.
1984. T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as receptor for human retrovirus LAV. Nature 312:767–768. 4. G. S. R. A. A. Axel. 1986. The T4 gene encodes the AIDS virus receptor and is expressed in the immune system and the brain. Cell 47:333–348. 5. A. Berger. 1995. Fusogenic selectivity of the envelope glycoprotein is a major determinant of human immunodeﬁciency virus type 1 tropism for CD4ϩ T-cell lines vs. primary macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:9004–9008. 6. C. A. Berger. 1996. Cell type-speciﬁc fusion Immunopathogenesis of HIV Infection 7.