By Allen I. Laskin (Eds.)
Meant for researchers in utilized microbiology and environmental engineers, this e-book covers such subject matters as environmental evaluation of biotechnological approaches and microbial differences of haloaromatic and haloaliphatic compounds.
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Additional resources for Advances in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 31
1982) showed this component of cellulase to be much more sensitive to heat, losing 87% of activity at 70°C for 5 hours. This and other reports indicate that C . thermocellum makes several endo-l,4-~-gluconaseswith different properties. Purification of components of the cellulase complex by two different laboratories yielded two different endogluconases. , 1981). The second endogluconase was isolated from broth of C. themnocellurn grown on cellobiose. It has a M , of 88,000, has different PI and pH characteristics than the 56,00044, enzyme, and also contains no cysteine and is insensitive to 0, (Ng and Zeikus, 198lb).
Traditional gene transfer systems such as transformation, or uptake of extracellular DNA by cells, and conjugation, GENETICS AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF Clostridium 39 requiring DNA exchange during cell-cell contact, are both under study utilizing clostridial plasmids. Also, the development of modern genetic tools such as cloning vectors, expression vectors, and shuttle vectors is dependent upon clostridial plasmids or parts of them. Table V lists most of the plasmids of clostridia described recently. The plasmids of C .
Thermocellum produces neither excess ethanol nor low hydrogen as is typical of other strains such as AS39 (see Table I). In contrast to C. themnocellum, strain AS39, and Thermoanaerobium brockii, crude extracts of strain LQRl did not have detectable ferredoxin:NAD oxidoreductase activity. Also, in contrast to C. pasteurianum and C . butyricum (Jungermann, 1973), no NADH-ferredoxin reductase activity was determined for either strain of C. thermocellum studied. Apparently, in the ethanologenic clostridia, transfer of electrons is restricted toward the direction Fd,,, + NADH, which is in contrast to that found for the butyrate fermenters where the direction NADH + Fd,,, is favored (Lamed and Zeikus, 1980).