By Akira Hirakawa
The current quantity is a translation of the 1st of Hirakawa's two-volume historical past. It
covers the interval from Sakyamuni* Buddha to Early Mahayana* earlier than Nagarjuna*
and contains the sessions on which Hirakawa did such a lot of his personal previous learn. From
1960 to 1968, he released 3 vital reports on Buddhist associations: Ritsuzo* no
kenkyu* (A examine of the Vinaya-pitaka*), Genshi Bukkyo* no kenkyu (A examine of Early
Buddhism), and Shoki Daijo* Bukkyo no kenkyu (Studies in Early Mahayana Buddhism).
These reviews, all popping out of his curiosity within the vinaya, verified his mastery of
Indian Buddhist institutional background. This learn used to be quite vital in his
formulation of a brand new conception of the increase of Mahayana *. by way of targeting the necessity to identify
an institutional base from which Mahayana arose, Hirakawa argued that stupa* worship
and the formula of Mahayana units of precepts supplied vital proof for the
development of Mahayana Buddhism.
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Additional info for A History of Indian Buddhism, From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna
T h e J a in a s too recognized karm ic causes a n d effects, but for th e m the results o f actions w ere usually ch a ra c te riz e d as “ p u n ish m en ts"' (dan$a). A large n u m b e r o f theories were a d v a n c e d co n cernin g the S elf o r en tity (dtmen, jic«a, P. atlan), which ! ra n sm ig ra te d th rou gh birlhs an d deaths* a n d th e realm (lo ta) in which the Self existed. In the Pah Braftmajdiasufta, no less t h a n sixty-two different positions o n these s u b jects a re described.
T h e d u ty of the slave class (s'tidra) was to serve the o th e r three classes. E v entually the system b ecam e m ore specialized anti pro d u ced ihe m a n y divisions (hat m ak e u p the caste system today. A m e m b e r o f one (hiss was usu ally not allowed to m a rry o r even eat w ith so m eon e fro m another class. M on archies ru led by kings (rafttn) with d ictato rial po w ers aro se, an d alliances a n d rivalries dev elop ed . I h e In dian epic the Maftdbharttta concerns the effccts o f a w ar betw een the tribes, thai b etw een the U haratas a n d the P u ru s.
Because the m in d h a d been freed from th e fetters o f the defile m en ts a n d passions, this stale was called “ e m a n c ip a tio n " o r “ salv a tio n ” (rnoiaa, vimokfa, vimukti). I? T h e F irst Se rm o n A lter the B u d d h a h:id a tta in e d e n lig h te n m e n t, he rem ain ed u n d e r the kodhl-tree a n d e n te re d a d e e p state o f m ed it alive Concentration (samddhi) that lasted for seven days. W h e n he em erg ed from his m e d ita tio n , he w ent a n d sat u n d e r a n o th e r tree to c o n te m p la te the bliss th at had resulted from his e n lig h te n m e n t.