A grammar of Misantla Totonac by Carolyn Mackay

By Carolyn Mackay

The Totonac-Tepehua language kinfolk, even though typologically just like another Mesoamerican languages, has no longer but been established to be on the topic of the other language kinfolk. Misantla Totonac is the southernmost number of Totonac and is spoken within the quarter among Xalapa, the capital of Veracruz, Mexico and Misantla, Veracruz. In 1974, a newly paved street attached Xalapa and Misantla bringing a comparatively remoted zone into touch with mainstream Mexican language and tradition. for this reason, Misantla Totonac isn't any longer obtained as a primary language via the neighborhood kids and is quickly being changed through Spanish. A GRAMMAR OF MISANTLA TOTONAC provides the phonological constitution of the language and the best morphological approaches. It describes inflection and derivation of all significant observe sessions (verbs, nominals, and statives) intimately. It introduces grammatical contract and note order phenomena, and provides the main salient and important features of Misantla Totonac grammar. even if a number of Totonac-Tepehua grammars exist in Spanish, this can be the one released grammar of the Totonac-Tepehua language kinfolk presently to be had in English. Winner of the once a year Society for the examine of Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA) booklet Award, this marks the 3rd quantity to be released within the sequence. "The fabric awarded here's key to any destiny paintings in reconstructing the proto-language. . . .[It] is an important contribution to either normal linguistics in addition to to Mesoamerican reports. -James Watters, summer season Institute of Linguistics

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By Carolyn Mackay

The Totonac-Tepehua language kinfolk, even though typologically just like another Mesoamerican languages, has no longer but been established to be on the topic of the other language kinfolk. Misantla Totonac is the southernmost number of Totonac and is spoken within the quarter among Xalapa, the capital of Veracruz, Mexico and Misantla, Veracruz. In 1974, a newly paved street attached Xalapa and Misantla bringing a comparatively remoted zone into touch with mainstream Mexican language and tradition. for this reason, Misantla Totonac isn't any longer obtained as a primary language via the neighborhood kids and is quickly being changed through Spanish. A GRAMMAR OF MISANTLA TOTONAC provides the phonological constitution of the language and the best morphological approaches. It describes inflection and derivation of all significant observe sessions (verbs, nominals, and statives) intimately. It introduces grammatical contract and note order phenomena, and provides the main salient and important features of Misantla Totonac grammar. even if a number of Totonac-Tepehua grammars exist in Spanish, this can be the one released grammar of the Totonac-Tepehua language kinfolk presently to be had in English. Winner of the once a year Society for the examine of Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA) booklet Award, this marks the 3rd quantity to be released within the sequence. "The fabric awarded here's key to any destiny paintings in reconstructing the proto-language. . . .[It] is an important contribution to either normal linguistics in addition to to Mesoamerican reports. -James Watters, summer season Institute of Linguistics

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You can also use ein/eine together with a predicate noun (a noun that complements the subject): Willy Brandt war ein geschickter Politiker (Willy Brandt was a skillful politician). Another similarity with English is that there’s no plural form of the German indefinite article ein/eine. ) Look at the following generalized statement, which requires no article: In Zermatt sind Autos verboten (Cars are forbidden in Zermatt [Switzerland]). The following shows you the definite articles and the corresponding indefinite articles (nominative case): Gender/Number Definite (the) Indefinite (a/an) Masculine der ein Feminine die eine Neuter das ein Plural die (no plural form) With German nouns, the gender functions only as a grammatical marker.

Note: However, a word that specifically describes a male or female type of animal has the same gender as the animal; for example, genders match in eine Stute (a mare) and ein Hengst (a stallion). qxp 2/25/08 9:21 AM Page 25 Chapter 2: Sorting Out Word Gender and Case English Words Masculine a fence ein Zaun Feminine a horse Neuter ein Pferd an ox ein Ochse a tractor ein Traktor Missing absentee articles In a few instances in German, you don’t use an article in the sentence. First of all, you don’t use the indefinite article when you mention someone’s profession, nationality, or religion.

In the second sentence, die is the subject, so it’s nominative, and it’s the placeholder for Frau Lachner, which is feminine singular. You use die, the feminine singular demonstrative pronoun in the nominative case. qxp 2/25/08 9:21 AM Page 37 Chapter 3 Laying the Foundations of German In This Chapter ᮣ Using ordinal and cardinal numbers ᮣ Discussing dates ᮣ Telling time ᮣ Talking about countries, citizens, and languages I n German-speaking countries, I love seeing die Bedienung (the server) in street cafés walking around with a bulging black leather change purse either tucked in the back of the pants (the male version) or attached at the waist in front, neatly camouflaged under a starched white apron (the female version).

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